Institutions that host neither authors, readers nor publishers may still have an interest in supporting Open Access Journals in order to increase dissemination of results from a smaller or wider area of science.
- Research councils often host journal support programs
- Other research founders may host publishing support programs, or may grant support on an application basis
- Library support and research programs may support publishing
External, i.e. from neither authors, readers nor publishers, financial support can be of importance to OA journals. Among sources of such support may be
Research councils (Public) Programs to support scientific publishing Private funds that (could) support scientific publishing